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153.065 Site Development Standards

(A) Purpose and Applicability

(1) The purpose of the site development standards is to facilitate the implementation of the Bridge Street District Area Plan and establish a walkable, mixed-use urban core for the City of Dublin consistent with the principles and directions articulated in the Community Plan (Bridge Street District Area Plan). It is intended that all site development encourage and support the principles of walkable urbanism provided in §153.057(D).

(2) As provided in §153.065, the site development standards shall be applied to all new development in the Bridge Street District, including modifications to Existing Uses and Existing Structures.

(3) With the exception of provisions related to Existing Uses in §153.059(B)(5) and Existing Structures in §153.062(B)(2), site development standards covered by this section that are nonconforming at the effective date of this amendment or made nonconforming by a change to this chapter shall meet the requirements of §153.004(C).

(B) Parking and Loading
The intent of §153.065(B) is to ensure the provision of adequate vehicular and bicycle parking facilities in all BSD zoning districts based on the vision for each area described in the Dublin Community Plan (Bridge Street District Area Plan) and the District’s five Vision Principles. This is achieved through the emphasis placed on required bicycle facilities, well-designed parking structures and the use of on-street parking spaces while minimizing off-street surface parking lots and encouraging shared parking arrangements.

(1) General Provisions
(a) Applicability
1. Vehicular and bicycle parking as required by §153.065(B) shall be provided for the use of occupants, employees and patrons of each new building or addition constructed. Required parking shall be provided as permitted by this section, including, but not limited to, shared parking arrangements.
2. Parking meeting the requirements of this section shall be provided for buildings that are expanded by more than 25% of the gross floor area existing on the effective date of a rezoning to a BSD zoning district.
3. Whenever the use of a building or lot is changed to a use requiring 25% or more parking spaces than the required parking for the previous use, parking shall be brought into full compliance as required by §153.065(B) within a reasonable time as determined by the Director. For a multi-tenant building, when a portion of the building or lot changes to a use requiring 25% or more parking spaces, only that parking for the new use shall be required. If applicable, a shared parking plan as described in §153.065(B)(2)(b) may also be submitted to ensure adequate parking while accommodating changes of use in multi-tenant buildings.
4. Required parking and loading spaces shall be installed and completed prior to building occupancy. The Director of Building Standards may grant one, six month extension following occupancy approval if adverse weather conditions or unusual delays beyond the control of the property owner prevent completion of parking and loading areas. Adequate parking areas and spaces shall be available, either on or off-site, during the extension period under the following conditions:
A. On-site parking areas, if not in a finished condition, shall be adequately surfaced to accommodate anticipated traffic, stormwater drainage and snow removal, at the determination of the Director of Building Standards; and/or
B. Parking may be provided off-site, subject to the requirements of §153.065(B)(1)(b).
5. The provisions of §153.207, Parking in Residential Districts, shall apply in the BSD Residential and BSD Historic Residential districts.
6. Parking and loading spaces for uses not addressed in §153.065(B) shall be determined by the Director based on the anticipated parking impacts of the proposed use, its similarity to characteristics of other listed uses, and supporting documentation that may be provided by the applicant.
7. Parking for Existing Structures is governed by the provisions of §153.062(B)(2)(c).
(b) Parking Location
1. On-Site Parking
A. Surface parking provided on-site may only be located on those areas of each development parcel that are not required by §153.062 to be occupied by a principal structure. Off-street parking may also be provided within a principal structure as permitted by §153.062(O). The parking areas shall be readily accessible by vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians.
B. Parking shall not be located within a setback as required for individual building types in §153.062(O), except that parking areas may extend across contiguous lots in developments with coordinated site design, shared access points and/or shared parking arrangements.
C. Where on-site surface parking is provided on a site included as part of a Development Plan Review, parking may be permitted by the required reviewing body to encroach required setbacks to facilitate coordinated site design and contiguous parking areas with future development phases.
2. Off-Site Parking
Required off-street parking shall be provided either on-site, or in a parking structure or surface parking lot located within 600 feet of the subject parcel as permitted by the BSD zoning district in which the parking lot or structure is located and shall be readily accessible by vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians.
A. The use of off-site parking to meet the minimum parking requirement shall require an approved parking plan as described in §153.065(B)(1)(f). If not under single ownership, provisions for off-site parking shall be made by binding agreements between two or more property owners. Written easements which provide for continued use and maintenance of the parking shall be submitted to the City for approval. Any agreement shall include provisions to address changes in use or ownership.
B. If an off-site parking agreement is severed or modified with the result of eliminating required parking for one or more properties, parking for the affected properties shall be brought into full compliance as required by §153.065(B), and approval of a new or modified parking plan shall be required.
C. If located off-site, distances to required parking areas shall be measured along a walkway from the nearest pedestrian entrance to the parking area to the main entrance to the principal structure or use being served.
3. On-Street Parking
On-street parking spaces may be counted toward meeting the minimum parking requirement for a parcel provided that the spaces are on the same side of the street and more than one-half the length of the parking space lies between the two side lot lines of the parcel extended into the street right-of-way. On corner lots, on-street spaces on both street frontages may be counted in the same manner. Credit for on-street parking spaces shall apply to parking for all uses on the parcel rather than any specific use. On-street parking spaces shall not be signed or otherwise designated for exclusive use by any specific use, building or lot.
(c) Electric Car Charging Points
Parking lots and structures are strongly encouraged to provide at least one electric plug-in service point for every 200 parking spaces. Plug-in points shall be associated with an individual parking space and shall be installed according to appropriate design standards, as approved by the Director. Plug-in points are exempt from the service structure screening requirements of §153.065(E).
(d) Parking Lot/Structure Lighting
Parking lot and parking structure lighting shall comply with the requirements of §153.065(F).
(e) Parking Lot Landscaping
Parking lot landscaping shall comply with the requirements of §153.065(D).
(f) Parking Plan Required
1. A parking plan demonstrating compliance with the provisions of §153.065(B) is required for the following conditions:
A. Applications for Site Plan Review;
B. Applications that include a request for off-site parking, or in any case where a modified parking agreement necessitates a new or modified parking plan as described in §153.065(B)(1)(b);
C. Applications involving a use listed in Table 153.065-A for which the parking requirement is specifically noted as being determined by an approved parking plan;
D. Applications that include a request for an adjustment to required vehicle parking as permitted in §153.065(B)(2)(b), or where a change in conditions renders an approved adjustment insufficient to meet the parking needs of a use, building or lot;
E. Applications that include a request for an adjustment to the number or location of required loading spaces as permitted in §153.065(B)(7), which may be approved by the Director where a change in conditions renders an approved adjustment insufficient to meet the loading needs of a use, building or lot;
F. Applications for a Certificate of Zoning Plan Approval for a change of use that requires 25% or more parking spaces than the previous use; or
G. Other circumstances determined by the Director to require a parking plan, which shall be reviewed with the Certificate of Zoning Plan Approval application.
2. Each parking plan for a parking area that contains 50 or more parking spaces shall demonstrate compliance with the pedestrian circulation standards of §153.065(I)(3)(b).
3. A parking plan shall include, at a minimum, the following, as applicable:
A. Required parking computation in accordance with Table 153.065-A and the numbers of parking spaces to be provided.
B. Information regarding any requested parking adjustments in accordance with §153.065(B)(2)(b).
C. Demonstration of parking need, in accordance with §153.065(B)(2)(b)6.
D. Signed and executed easements, agreements, or other documentation required to ensure that spaces counted toward the parking requirements are properly secured.
E. Site plan(s) for planned parking areas covered by the parking plan indicating locations of planned parking, names of property owners for properties not under the direct control of the applicant, and any other related site details relevant to the parking plan application.
F. Any other information required by the Director to ensure an adequate review of the parking plan application.

(2) Required Vehicle Parking
(a) Minimum Amount Required and Maximum Amount Permitted
1. Each use shall provide the minimum amount of parking required for that use listed on Table 153.065-A, and shall be permitted to provide up to the maximum amount of parking on-site, as indicated for that use in Table 153.065-A, except as may be modified by the provisions of §153.065(B).
2. When calculating minimum and maximum parking requirements, fractional numbers shall be increased to the next whole number.
3. Unless otherwise noted, all square footage requirements are based on indoor gross floor area.
4. Except as noted in Table 153.065-A, no additional parking is required for accessory or temporary uses when the square footage of the uses are included in the parking calculation for the gross floor area of the principal use.
(b) Adjustments to Required Vehicle Parking
The maximum on-site parking requirements may not exceed that permitted by Table 153.065-A unless a parking plan meeting the criteria of §153.065(B)(2)(b)6, below is approved by the required reviewing body. The minimum amount of parking required by Table 153.065-A may be reduced by approval of a parking plan meeting the requirements of §153.065(B)(2)(b)1-6. The cumulative reduction of minimum parking requirements permitted by §153.065(B)(2)(b)1-5 shall not exceed 30% of required parking, regardless of the number of these adjustments applied. Additional reductions may be permitted by §153.065(B)(2)(b)6.
1. Shared Parking Calculations
Where a mix of land uses creates staggered peak periods of parking, shared parking plans that have the effect of reducing the total amount of needed parking spaces may be approved. Parking spaces included in shared parking plans should be equally accessible and available to each of the affected users. The collective provision of off-street parking for two or more buildings or uses may be permitted subject to the following:
A. Shared parking plans may include any lot or structure meeting the parking location requirements of §153.065(B)(1)(b). Adjacent lots included in the shared arrangement shall be connected for vehicular passage and shall provide safe and efficient pedestrian access to all uses served by the parking area(s).
B. A request for a shared parking reduction shall be based on a shared parking analysis, including, but not limited to, the following factors:
i. The number of originally required spaces for different uses or facilities sharing the same parking areas as noted in Table 153.065-A; and
ii. Documentation of required parking needed for different uses at different days and times.
C. The adjusted required parking for shared parking areas shall be the largest number of spaces needed for all uses during the most intensive time period of use expected on a typical basis.
2. Auto-Share Parking Spaces
The required minimum number of off-street parking spaces may be reduced by four spaces for each parking space reserved for auto-share parking, not to exceed a 10% reduction in the required minimum number of spaces provided in any one parking lot or structure. Auto-share parking spaces shall be designated on a parking plan and signed for the exclusive use of auto-share vehicles and evidence of written measures shall be provided to the City to ensure that the auto-share spaces are used only for that purpose.
3. Transit Proximity
The required minimum number of off-street parking spaces may be reduced by 10% if more than 50% of the land in a proposed development is located within 1,320 feet of any public transit stop. If an existing transit stop is subsequently eliminated, any previously permitted parking reduction shall remain valid, provided that an active transit route remains within 1,320 feet of the development.
4. Shower Facilities
The required minimum number of off-street parking spaces for a non-residential development may be reduced by 5% if a development contains shower and clothing locker facilities for bicycle commuting employees or patrons. The reduction shall apply only to that portion of the minimum parking requirement attributable to the tenant(s) or user(s) that have access to the shower and locker facilities. If the shower or locker facilities are later eliminated, the reduction of the minimum required parking shall no longer apply and parking shall be provided in accordance with §153.065(B).
5. Transportation Demand Management
As an alternative or supplement to the other adjustments in subsection §153.065(B)(2)(b), off-street parking requirements may be reduced by up to 30% through the use of a Transportation Demand Management (TDM) program approved by the Director and the City Engineer.
A. Parking Demand Study Required
Before a TDM program may be approved, the applicant shall submit a parking demand study prepared by a traffic engineer or other qualified transportation professional determined to be acceptable to the Director and the City Engineer. The study shall document that the use of alternative modes of transportation, including transit, bicycles, walking, and/or the special characteristics of the customer, client, employee, or resident population will reduce expected vehicular use and parking space demands for the use, as compared to the Institute of Transportation Engineers vehicle trip generation rates and the minimum parking requirements established in Table 153.065-A.
B. Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Activities
The TDM program must include at least two of the following established and maintained activities in order to qualify for a reduction in off-street parking requirements:
i. Carpooling, vanpooling, ridesharing, guaranteed ride home, telecommuting, and/or shuttle service programs;
ii. Staggered or alternative work scheduling, allowing employees to arrive and depart at different times so that peak parking demands associated with mass shift changes are minimized;
iii. Dissemination of information to employees, residents, and visitors to the site regarding the TDM plan and alternatives to single-occupancy vehicle travel to the site through an on-site office or project-specific web site; or
iv. Use of alternative TDM activities that the Director and the City Engineer determine are likely, in combination with other TDM measures, to result in at least 30% reduction in single-occupancy vehicle travel to and from the site, as compared to the Institute of Transportation Engineers vehicle trip generation rates.
C. TDM Annual Report
i. The owner of the parcel or principal structure must provide an annual report to the Director and City Engineer describing the implementation strategies for the approved TDM plan as approved. The report shall include a description of the TDM activities, a list of current tenants and number of employees for each tenant, and a parking-reduction analysis based on employee and/or resident use of ridership programs or alternative transportation options.
ii. If the report does not document reasonable progress toward a 30% reduction in the Institute of Transportation Engineers vehicle trip generation rate of single-occupancy vehicle travel to and from the site, then the report shall identify what changes to the TDM plan or activities are being made to further reduce single-occupancy vehicle travel to and from the site. The Director and the City Engineer may require additional parking facilities to be constructed or a fee from the owner of the parcel or primary structure to be used for the construction of additional parking facilities or improvements to offset the impact of the single-occupancy vehicles.
6. Demonstration of Parking Need
In addition to or in lieu of parking adjustments as described in §153.065(B)(2)(b)(1)-(5), the required reviewing body shall be permitted to approve a parking plan for fewer than the minimum required parking spaces or more than the maximum permitted parking spaces based on a demonstration of parking need by the applicant. The required reviewing body shall consider:
A. The land use and development character of the area to be served by the parking facility, including the relative intensity of uses requiring parking, availability of transit, proximity of nearby employment centers and residential uses, and other relevant factors;
B. The availability of other publicly available parking in the area, including information such as number of spaces, any applicable restrictions (time limits, dedicated parking areas, etc.), or other uses also counting spaces in the same parking area for meeting parking requirements;
C. The timing of parking use relative to other uses in the area including information regarding hours of operation or other operational parking needs that would permit use of the spaces;
D. The parking requirement for similar uses where applicable, as may be determined by the Director, as described in §153.065(B)(1)(a);
E. Whether the location of all provided parking meets the requirements of §153.065(B)(1)(b);
F. Whether compliance with Table 153.065-A is made to the maximum extent practicable taking into account parking lot design and efficiency of the layout;
G. Whether other adjustments as described in this section should apply in conjunction with or in lieu of the requested need-based adjustment; and
H. Whether supporting documentation, if provided, adequately demonstrates that sufficient parking is available to meet projected typical demand.
(c) Accessible Parking Spaces
1. Within the total number of off-street parking spaces provided, a minimum number of spaces shall be designated, installed, and managed for use by the physically disabled in compliance with the Ohio Building Code, current edition, Chapter on Accessibility and the Referenced Standards therein.
2. All handicapped parking spaces shall be designated by freestanding signs as provided in the Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices or as approved by the City Engineer.

(3) Required Bicycle Parking
(a) Applicability
Bicycle parking is required for any development or use with six or more required vehicle parking spaces.
(b) Minimum Number of Bicycle Parking Spaces Required
1. Bicycle parking spaces shall be required as follows:
A. For residential uses, except attached and detached single-family, one space for every two dwelling units. Up to 50% of required spaces may be provided within garages for multiple-family uses provided the required reviewing body determines that the garage size and dedicated bicycle parking facilities are generally adequate to accommodate these spaces.
B. For civic/public/institutional uses, one space for every 20 required vehicle parking spaces.
C. For commercial uses, one space for every 10 required vehicle parking spaces.
2. Provided that bicycle parking is not completely eliminated, required bicycle parking may be increased or reduced by the required reviewing body when it is demonstrated that the level of bicycle activity at that location warrants a different amount.
(c) Facility Type
1. Designs of bicycle racks, docks, posts, and lockers are encouraged to be decorative, unique, and appropriate to the surrounding area. Bicycle parking design should be incorporated whenever possible into building design and coordinated with the design of street furniture when it is provided.
2. Bicycle parking racks, docks, or posts shall be designed and installed to allow a bicycle to be locked to a structure, attached to the pavement, building, or other permanent structure, with two points of contact to an individual bicycle frame. Racks, docks, and posts shall be designed to allow the bicycle frame and one or both wheels to be locked with a U-lock when used as intended.
3. Bicycle parking racks, docks or posts provided within the street right-of-way shall be of a consistent design on all streets included within a Development Plan or Site Plan Review site. Facility types, designs and locations within the street-right-of-way shall require approval by the City Engineer.
(d) Location
1. Required bicycle parking shall be located within a reasonable walking distance of the principal building entrances being served. Bicycle parking may be provided in and/or adjacent to open spaces where provided in accordance with §153.064. The location and design shall ensure that bicycle parking and facilities do not obstruct vehicle parking or pedestrian walkways as required by the Ohio Building Code, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and other applicable state and federal laws, policies and guidelines. Bicycle facilities and parking areas shall meet the sight visibility requirements of this Chapter.
2. Outdoor bicycle parking areas shall be located in well-lit areas in accordance with §153.065(F).
3. A pedestrian-accessible walk shall be available between the outdoor bicycle parking area and the principal building entrance. Public sidewalks may be used to meet this requirement.
4. Bicycle lockers shall be located inside or to the side or rear of the principal structure, but not within any required setback or required building zone.
5. Covered Bicycle Parking Areas
A. Bicycle parking areas are encouraged to be sheltered from natural elements by locating them inside or under principal or accessory structures, in bicycle lockers, under roof extensions, overhangs, awnings, carports or enclosures, or other similar methods.
B. If bicycle parking is covered, the cover must be permanently attached to the ground or a structure and have at least seven feet of clearance above the surface to which it is attached.
C. Covered bicycle parking areas shall be in accordance with building type requirements and are not permitted within any required setback or required building zone unless the shelter is part of the principal structure and at least five feet of clear area is available for pedestrian use.
6. Public bicycle parking provided by the City and located within the street right-of-way may be counted toward meeting the minimum bicycle parking requirement for a parcel provided that the spaces are on the same side of the street and located between the two side lot lines of the parcel. Credit for public bicycle parking spaces shall apply to parking for all uses on the parcel rather than any specific use.
7. For parcels within the Architectural Review District boundaries, public bicycle parking provided by the City and located within the street right-of-way may be counted toward meeting the minimum bicycle parking requirement provided that the spaces are on the same block face as the subject parcel.
8.On corner lots, public bicycle parking spaces on both street frontages may be counted.
9. Public bicycle parking spaces shall not be designated for exclusive use by any specific use, building or lot. (e) Installation
Bicycle parking shall be installed according to the dimensional requirements set forth by the manufacturer and the latest edition of the APBP Bicycle Parking Guidelines, or similar industry publication acceptable to the Director.
(4) Off-Street Parking Space and Aisle Dimensions
Parking spaces and maneuvering aisles shall comply with Table 153.065-B. Refer to Figure 153.065-A for a graphic depiction of these requirements.

(C) Stormwater Management
(1) Intent
The City’s goal for stormwater management is to enact standards reflecting the most innovative, creative, environmentally effective and cost-effective practices available. Through the standards and practices incorporated in the City’s Stormwater Management Design Manual, the City encourages the use of stormwater treatment and engineering methods that allow for groundwater recharge and that manage stormwater as close to its source as possible. The use of Environmentally Sensitive Development (ESD) methods such as conservation design, smart growth, green infrastructure, integrated site design and sustainable development are practices and methods that can help achieve these goals. These practices are encouraged to be used in Dublin where suited to site and development conditions, and particularly in the Bridge Street District, consistent with the standards in the Stormwater Management Design Manual and the Principles of Walkable Urbanism provided in §153.057(D).

(2) All stormwater shall be managed as required by Chapter 53 of the Dublin City Code.

(D) Landscaping and Tree Preservation
(1) Purpose
(a) The intent of §153.065(D) is to improve the appearance of the BSD zoning districts, reduce noise and air pollution, reduce heat island impacts, protect the character and value of surrounding neighborhoods, and promote public health and safety through appropriate urban-scale landscaping of street frontages and surface parking lots. This section is also intended to ensure buffering between significantly different land uses, and that trees are preserved and replaced in a manner appropriate to urban environments.
(b) Because the BSD zoning districts reflect a more urban, mixed-use character than other areas of the city, these standards generally allow landscaping benefits to be achieved through intensities of planting or other forms of screening as an alternative to wide planted areas. Quantitative requirements for landscape materials are intended to provide minimum amounts based on the scale and intensity of development. Unless otherwise specified, these requirements should not be interpreted as requiring regular, symmetrical or standardized intervals of vegetation within landscape areas. Required landscaping should be creatively and architecturally designed to add four seasons of visual interest and preserve natural integrity, and be appropriate to the character of the surrounding area.

(2) General
(a) The provisions of §§153.132 through 153.148 shall apply in the BSD zoning districts unless specifically modified or waived through the provisions of §153.065(D). Landscaping for existing sites shall be brought into compliance with the minimum requirements of this section in accordance with the provisions of §153.132(B).
(b) Each application for development or redevelopment shall include a landscape plan showing compliance with the provisions of §153.065(D). The siting of buildings shall avoid the removal of desirable trees in good or fair condition where alternatives consistent with the provisions of §153.062 are available.
(c) Protected trees, as defined in this Chapter, removed from any portion of a lot consistent with an approved Minor Project, Development Plan, or Site Plan Review shall be replaced in accordance with §153.146 except as provided by §153.065(D)(9).
(d) Existing trees which are incorporated into the landscape plan shall be protected during construction as required by §153.145.
(e) Landscape plans shall exhibit diversity in tree selection, as determined to be appropriate by the City Forester and the Director of Parks and Open Space.
(f) In all areas where landscaping is required, the surface area of any landscape bed shall be predominantly covered within four years after installation by living materials, rather than bark, mulch, gravel or other non-living materials. Areas included in rain gardens or other vegetated site features to meet stormwater management requirements are excluded from this requirement with prior approval from the Director.
(g) Areas included in rain gardens or vegetated site features created to meet stormwater management requirements may be counted towards any landscaping required by §153.065(D)(4) – (6) if landscaped to meet the requirements.
(h) All irrigation systems shall be designed, installed, and operated to minimize run-off and over-spray of irrigation water onto roadways, sidewalks, and adjacent properties, and shall be installed with rain sensors to turn the system off during rainy conditions.
(i) Shrubs and plants that exceed two and one-half feet in mature height are prohibited in required sight visibility triangles for site access points as defined in Appendix C and are prohibited in required sight visibility triangles for street intersections as defined by the City Engineer.
(j) If two or more conflicting landscape requirements apply to the same area, the one requiring the most landscaping shall apply.
(k) A registered landscape architect shall be used to prepare landscape plans required for applications for Site Plan Review.

(3) Street Trees
When a property is developed or redeveloped in any BSD zoning district the applicant shall be required to plant and maintain trees in the street right-of-way pursuant to the following requirements. No existing street trees shall be required to adhere to the following requirements unless they are required to be removed and replaced consistent with an appropriate approved application as provided in §153.066.
(a) A minimum of one tree is required per 40 linear feet of street frontage or fraction thereof. Refer to Table 153.065-D, Street Tree Spacing Requirements, for spacing based on tree size and site characteristics.
(b) Street trees shall be planted within streetscape planting zones in tree wells, tree lawns based or open planting beds based on the applicable street type design requirements. Refer to §153.061 for more information regarding street types.
(c) Street trees shall be planted in topsoil approved by the Director of Parks and Open Space or the City Forester. Structural soil or an equivalent material approved by the City Forester shall be placed under paved areas adjacent to tree wells or planting beds, parallel to and behind the curb, and connecting planting beds or tree wells to one another beneath the paved surface within the streetscape planting zone. The City Forester may require additional structural soil to extend horizontally beyond the planting zone beneath sidewalks or other paved surfaces, as necessary to ensure the long term health of street trees, depending on the planting and paving conditions within individual street types. Structural soil shall not be used in planting beds.
(d) The street tree openings shall be a minimum of five feet wide and five feet long and excavated to a minimum depth of three feet. The City Forester may require a deeper excavation based on specific tree species, site conditions, and/or conditions related to the adjacent street type.
(e) Tree wells shall be covered with a tree grate, permeable pavers (block or stone) or by plant material, where appropriate for the street type and site conditions as approved by the City Forester.
(f) Species and Size
1. Street trees shall be from the approved Urban Street Tree List for Dublin, Ohio or other species approved by the City Forester.
2. Street trees shall have a clear trunk of at least seven feet above the ground. The minimum trunk caliper measured at six inches above the ground for all street trees shall be no less than two and one-half inches. Existing trees in good or fair condition may be used to satisfy these requirements with prior approval of the City Forester.
3. Small tree species are permitted for use in planting zones where overhead utility lines exist. Small tree species may also be planted in medians, in addition to medium and/or large tree species, where medians are provided.
(g) Spacing and Location
Street trees shall be spaced as set forth in Table 153.065-F below unless modified by the City Forester based on unusual site conditions or obstructions.
(h) Maintenance and Replacement by Property Owner
The property owner shall be required to maintain the street trees for one year after the trees are planted and replace any tree which fails to survive or does not exhibit normal growth characteristics of health and vigor, as determined by the City Forester. The one-year period after the approval of the City Forester shall begin at each planting and shall recommence as trees are replaced.
(i) Prohibited Activities
1. No person shall top any tree within the public right-of-way unless specifically authorized by the City Forester. Topping is defined as the severe cutting back of limbs to stubs larger than three inches in diameter within the tree’s crown to such a degree so as to remove the normal canopy and disfigure the tree, as determined by the City Forester.
2. Unless specifically authorized by the City Forester, no person shall intentionally damage, cut, carve, transplant, or remove any tree or shrub; attach any rope, wire, nails, advertising posters, or other contrivance to any tree or shrub, allow any gaseous liquid, or solid substance which is harmful to trees or shrubs to come in contact with them; or set fire or permit fire to burn when fire or heat will injure any portion of any tree or shrub.
3. No person shall excavate any tunnels, trenches, or install a driveway or sidewalk within a radius of ten feet from the trunk of any public tree or shrub without first obtaining the prior written approval from the City Forester.
4. No person shall remove a tree or shrub from the City-owned tree lawn, streetscape planting zone or other public property without first obtaining the prior written approval of the City Forester.
5. No person shall by any type of construction reduce the size of a tree lawn or streetscape planting zone without prior written approval of the City Engineer.
6. Decorative lights, strings of lights, electrical cords or wires are not permitted to be attached to any tree for more than four consecutive months.
(j) Municipal Rights
1. The City shall have the right to plant, prune, maintain and remove trees, plants and shrubs within public rights-of-way and other public grounds as may be necessary to ensure public safety or to preserve or enhance the environmental quality and beauty of public grounds. This section shall not prohibit the planting of street trees by adjacent property owners providing that the prior written permission of the City Forester has been granted.
2. The City Forester may cause or order to be removed any tree or part of a tree that is in an unsafe condition or which by reasons of its nature is injurious to sewers, electric power lines, gas lines, water lines, or other public improvements, or is affected with any injurious fungi, insect or other pest.
3. The City Forester shall have the right to enter private property to access trees adjacent to public areas for the purposes of proper pruning, after reasonable prior written notice has been given to the property owner.
4. Wherever it is necessary to remove a tree(s) or shrub(s) from a public planting zone or other public property, the City shall endeavor to remove and replant or replace the trees or shrubs. No protected tree within the public right-of-way or on other public grounds shall be removed without prior review by the City Forester, and the trees shall only be removed if the City Forester determines there are no other means available to preserve the tree.
5. The City Forester shall have the right to cause the removal of any dead or diseased tree(s) located on private property within the city and/or cause the removal of branches of trees located on private property that overhang or impede access to public property, when those trees constitute a hazard to life and property, or harbor an epiphytotic disease which constitutes a potential threat to other trees within the city. The City Forester shall notify in writing the owners of the trees to be removed. Removal shall be done by the owners at their own expense within 60 days after the date of service of written notice, unless a longer period is agreed to in writing by the City Forester, to allow time to attempt to treat and cure a salvageable diseased tree. In the event of failure of owners to comply within 60 days, the City Forester shall notify in writing the owners of the trees of the City’s authority to remove any tree(s) and charge the cost of removal to the owner as provided by law.

(4) Perimeter Landscape Buffering
Perimeter landscape buffering is intended to provide a buffer between land uses of significantly different intensities. The buffering is intended to obscure the higher-intensity land use from view and block potential negative impacts related to noise, lighting levels, and activity through the use of denser landscape screening and/or a fence or wall visually softened by clustered plantings, creatively and architecturally designed, as appropriate to the character of the surrounding area, and approved by the required reviewing body.
(a) Perimeter landscape buffering is required:
1. When development or redevelopment in accordance with §153.062(B)(1) in any BSD zoning district abuts property in a non-BSD zoning district; or
2. With the exception of the BSD Historic Core district, when a non-residential land use is adjacent to a parcel containing only single-family detached building types (regardless of whether there is an intervening street, alley, or driveway).
(b) These requirements apply when a site subject to these requirements is developed or redeveloped in accordance with §153.062(B)(2). No existing development shall be required to install perimeter landscape buffering because of a change in the nature, character, or zoning classification of an adjacent parcel.
(c) The required perimeter landscape buffer area may be located within a utility or other easement with the prior approval of the City Engineer provided all of the landscape requirements are met.
(d) Required buffer materials must be placed on the parcel where development or redevelopment is occurring, unless both the parcel providing the buffering and the parcel being buffered are in common ownership, in which case the buffer may be provided on either or portions of both properties.
(e) Vehicles or other objects shall not overhang or otherwise intrude upon the required perimeter landscape buffer. Refer to §153.065(B)(6)(d) for curb and wheel stop requirements.
(f) Existing landscape material in good or fair condition may be used to satisfy these requirements with the prior approval of the Director.

(5) Surface Parking and Circulation Area Landscaping
All surface parking lots containing ten or more parking spaces, vehicular circulation areas for fueling/service stations, drive in/drive throughs, and other vehicular use areas shall provide the landscaping required by §153.065(D)(5).
(a) Street Frontage Screening
Surface parking lots and other vehicular use areas located within 40 feet of a public street shall either be landscaped, or a street wall shall be installed in accordance with §153.065(E)(2) along the parking lot boundary facing the street to create a visual edge along the public right-of-way. The required street frontage treatment shall be in accordance with the following:
1. Where a surface parking lot/vehicular use area is located between 20 feet and 40 feet of any street right-of-way the property owner shall install at least one deciduous tree per 40 lineal feet, or fraction thereof, of a parking lot boundary facing the public street, in addition to the street trees required by §153.065(D)(3). In addition, at least five deciduous or evergreen shrubs per 25 lineal feet, or fraction thereof, of a parking lot boundary facing the public street shall be installed, with a mature height of at least three feet. Required landscaping shall be installed within five feet of the edge of the parking lot and may be creatively clustered and architecturally designed, as appropriate to the character of the surrounding area.
2. Where a surface parking lot/vehicular use area is located within 20 feet of any street right-of-way, the property owner shall install a street wall in accordance with §153.065(E)(2) and at least five deciduous or evergreen shrubs per 25 lineal feet, or fraction thereof, of a parking lot boundary facing the public street. Trees are permitted to be installed but not required. Required landscaping may be creatively clustered and architecturally designed, as appropriate to the character of the surrounding area.
3. Where a surface parking lot/vehicular use area is located within 20 feet of a principal frontage street, the property owner shall install a masonry or wrought iron street wall in accordance with §153.065(E)(2). In addition, at least five deciduous or evergreen shrubs per 25 lineal feet, or fraction thereof, of a parking lot boundary facing the public street shall be installed. Trees are permitted to be installed but not required. Required landscaping may be creatively clustered and architecturally designed, as appropriate to the character of the surrounding area.
4. Unless otherwise approved by the required reviewing body, where a surface parking lot/vehicular use area is located within 40 feet of an alley or service street, the property owner shall install at least five deciduous or evergreen shrubs with a mature height of at least three feet, per 25 lineal feet or fraction thereof of the parking lot boundary. Required landscaping shall be installed within five feet of the edge of the parking lot and may be creatively clustered and architecturally designed, as appropriate to the character of the surrounding area.
5. Where temporary conditions are anticipated, such as developments planned in phases, the required reviewing body may consider alternative street frontage screening treatments consistent with an appropriate approved application as provided in §153.066.
6. Where the surface parking lot/vehicular use area’s proximity to the public right-of-way varies such that different treatments detailed in §153.065(D)(5)(a)1-3 are required, the street frontage screening required for the majority of that side of the parking lot/vehicular use area shall be required along the entire frontage of that same side of the parking lot/vehicular use area.
(b) Perimeter Buffering
Where a surface parking lot is located within 30 feet of a side, corner side, or rear lot line, and the adjacent property contains only single-family detached building types or is a non-BSD district (regardless of whether there is an intervening street, alley, or driveway), the property owner shall install perimeter buffering meeting the requirements of §153.065(D)(4).
(c) Interior Landscaping
1. In addition to required street frontage and perimeter buffering described in §153.065(D)(5)(a)-(b) above, a minimum of 5% of the interior parking lot area, calculated as the total of the area in all parking spaces and drive aisles, shall be landscaped.
2. Interior landscape areas shall be landscaped with one or more of the following options:
A. Option A: Landscape Peninsula or Island – The minimum width of a landscape peninsula or island shall be 10 feet with a minimum area of 150 square feet, with a maximum run of 12 parking spaces permitted without a tree island. One medium deciduous tree as defined by Appendix E or as otherwise approved by the City Forester shall be planted for every 12 parking spaces. Trees shall be planted in topsoil approved by the Director of Parks and Open Space or the City Forester. The Director of Parks and Open Space or the City Forester may require structural soil to be placed beneath paved areas surrounding the peninsula or island, as necessary to ensure the long term health of trees, depending on the planting and paving conditions. All islands and peninsulas shall be excavated to a depth of three feet. Structural soil shall not be used in planting beds.
B. Option B: Interior Tree Lawn – The minimum width of an interior tree lawn shall be 10 feet with a minimum area of 300 square feet. One medium or large deciduous tree as defined by Appendix E, or as otherwise approved by the City Forester, shall be planted for every 12 parking spaces or every 30 linear feet, whichever provides more canopy cover. Trees may be grouped or spaced within the interior lawn area. All interior tree lawns shall be excavated to a depth of three feet and filled with amended clean soil or equivalent material as approved by the City Forester.
C. Option C: Large Consolidated Island – The minimum dimensions of a large consolidated landscape island interior to the parking lot shall be a minimum of 36 feet wide with a minimum area of 1,300 square feet. One medium or large deciduous tree as defined by Appendix E, or as otherwise approved by the City Forester, shall be planted for every 12 parking spaces. Trees may be grouped or spaced within the large consolidated island. Existing trees which are to be preserved may be incorporated into the large consolidated island, as approved by the City Forester. Where existing trees are not being preserved within the large consolidated island, the area shall be excavated to a depth of three feet and filled with amended clean topsoil or equivalent material as approved by the City Forester.
3. All trees planted in interior landscaped areas shall have a three foot minimum dimension from the tree trunk to the back of curb or edge of pavement, as applicable.
4. When a landscape peninsula or island abuts the length of a parking space, a clear space for persons entering and exiting parked vehicles shall be provided by turf or pavers, mulch, and other similar non-vegetative material.
5. Each interior landscaped area must include at least one deciduous shade tree (from the approved Urban Street Tree List) to be counted toward the required landscape area. Trees shall have a clear trunk of at least seven feet above the ground, and the remaining area shall be landscaped with hardwood mulch, shrubs, perennials or ground cover. Interior tree lawns and large consolidated islands may also use turf. Shrubs or perennials shall not exceed two feet in mature height.
6. Required on-site drainage shall be incorporated into interior landscaped areas to the maximum extent practicable consistent with the standards in the City of Dublin Stormwater Management Design Manual. If a curb is located at the edge of a landscaped area, planted areas shall be installed at a lower grade than the parking lot pavement and curbing shall have openings or gaps allowing drainage from the pavement to enter and percolate through the landscaped areas. Plantings in landscaped areas intended to be used for biofiltration shall be those appropriate for rain gardens.

(6) Required Building Zone (RBZ) Treatment
Refer to §153.065(I)(2)(a) for RBZ treatment requirements.

(7) Foundation Planting
Building foundation landscaping is required for all façades of all principal structures as described below:
(a) Building foundation landscaping is required along all sides of a building not otherwise occupied by building entrances, sidewalk, parking, or loading areas, or other similar areas. Building foundation landscaping is not required for portions of the front or corner side building façades located within 10 feet of the front property line and where a streetscape or patio RBZ treatment is provided.
(b) Where building foundation landscaping is required, at least one shrub shall be provided per each 10 linear feet of building façade, or fraction thereof, within a landscape bed or raised planter extending a minimum of 42 inches beyond the foundation. Shrub spacing shall be at the industry minimum standard by species. Building foundation landscaping shall be continuous. Plantings should be designed and creatively clustered by species, and respond to the character of the adjacent architecture and surrounding area.
(c) Where streetscape or patio RBZ treatment is provided, raised planting beds, raised planters, and flower boxes may be used.
(d) Building foundation landscaping may be installed at building foundation grade level or in a raised planter. The planter shall not be higher than three feet above the building foundation grade level. Roof top gardens do not count towards meeting this requirement.
(e) The surface area of any foundation planting landscape bed shall be predominantly covered by living materials, rather than bark, mulch, gravel or other non-living materials in accordance with §153.065(D)(2)(e).

(8) Credit to Preserve Existing Trees
(a) Credit Available
Property owners who demonstrate they have preserved mature, non-diseased trees with a six-inch caliper as measured at diameter breast height (DBH) during development or redevelopment may obtain credits toward required landscaping. Trees intended to be preserved shall be indicated on the landscape plan and shall be protected during construction through use of tree protection fencing around the critical root radius. The total amount of tree credits shall not exceed 50% of the required tree landscaping requirement.
(b) Amount of Credit
Credit for preserved trees is shown in TABLE 153.065-E. Any preserved trees for which credit is given and that are lost to damage or disease within five years after the credit is awarded, shall be replaced by the land owner with the number of trees for which the credit was granted.

(9) Tree Preservation
(a) General Provisions
1. Applicability
§153.065(D)(9) applies to protected trees on all public and private properties.
2. Tree Preservation Plan Required
A. Due to unique and/or noteworthy characteristics including size, species, age, and historical significance, landmark trees and significant groups of mature, healthy trees are community amenities that should be preserved to the maximum extent feasible.
B. Applicants shall submit a tree preservation plan for approval by the required reviewing body that demonstrates the site landscaping complies with the provisions of §153.065(D). At either the preliminary plat or initial application stage, the property owner shall submit a copy of the tree preservation plan to the appropriate public utilities in order to alert those public utilities to the proposed placement of the trees in relation to utility service lines.
C. A tree survey prepared by a certified arborist shall be submitted with the tree preservation plan for all Development Plan, Site Plan and/or Minor Project Review applications for lots containing existing trees. The tree survey shall include the location, size, condition and species of all existing trees over four inches caliper as measured at DBH.
D. The tree preservation plan submitted as part of the Development Plan, Site Plan and/or Minor Project Review application shall identify all landmark trees and/or significant tree stands on the site, including critical root zones to establish the limits of tree preservation zones, as determined by the required reviewing body.
E. The property owner shall replace inch for inch any protected trees that are removed or lost due to damage, regardless of their location on the lot, except as provided in §153.065(D)(9)(b).
3. Site Layout and Design
Where practicable, site design and architectural layout activities shall preserve existing protected trees and avoid risk of protected tree loss through changes of grade and soil moisture, both on the subject parcel and on adjacent parcels. This includes, but is not limited to, the layout and design of buildings and any associated site improvements including auguring, jacking, or boring to install utilities (as opposed to open cutting). The critical root zones of protected trees on the subject parcel and adjacent parcels shall be reviewed and land disturbance within those zones avoided to the extent reasonable.
4. Tree Removal Permit
The provisions of §153.143 shall apply, except as provided in §153.065(D)(9)(b).
A. Protected trees used as credit to meet a required tree landscape requirement which die shall be replaced by the land owner with the number of trees for which the credit was granted. Replacement trees may count towards the credit amount for the development.
B. Replacement trees provided pursuant to §153.065(D)(9) shall count towards landscaping required under other portions of this section if they meet the size, type, and location standards for the landscaping required.
(b) Exemptions
The following activities are not subject to the tree replacement requirements for protected trees as described in §153.146 provided the proposed tree removal is included in the required application as described in §153.066.
1. Trees planted due to a requirement of a previously approved development plan or as a condition to a previously issued Certificate of Zoning Plan Approval prior to the date this provision takes effect;
2. Removal of trees that, at the determination of the City Forester, are undesirable with respect to structure, species, and/or condition;
3. Removal of trees on any portion of a site required to be occupied by a public street as approved by the City Engineer and the required reviewing body with a Development Plan Review application;
4. Removal of trees on any portion of a lot required to be occupied by a structure pursuant to the standards of §153.062 as approved by the required reviewing body with applications for Minor Project or Site Plan Review;
5. Removal of trees which are an obstruction to traffic signals or traffic signs, power lines, or other utilities;
6. Removal of trees necessary for rescue in an emergency or for cleanup after a natural disaster; and
7. Removal of trees deemed hazardous by the City Forester or a certified arborist, and approved by the City Forester.

(10) Maintenance and Replacement
(a) Street Trees and Public Trees
Each property owner shall comply with those standards for maintenance, replacement, protection and management of street trees and public trees in §153.065(D)(3).
(b) Other Required Landscaping on Private Property
For landscaping other than public trees and street trees, each property owner shall:
1. Maintain all required landscaping in good condition, as determined by the City Forester;
2. Remove any landscaping or tree that dies or is required to be removed due to damage or disease within three months after the loss of that landscaping or tree; and
3. Replace the landscaping or tree within three months of its removal.
(c) The City Forester may extend times for performance if weather or other conditions prevent performance within the times stated above.

(11) Alternative Landscaping
In lieu of compliance with the specific requirements of §153.065(D)(3)-(9) an owner may propose alternative approaches consistent with the intent of §153.065(D)(2) to accommodate unique site conditions, abutting or surrounding uses, or other conditions, as deemed appropriate by the required reviewing body. Requests for alternative landscaping shall be reviewed by the required reviewing body with the Minor Project or Site Plan Review application and approved only if the proposed alternative is equal to or better than the aesthetic, environmental, and buffering functions anticipated with the provisions of §153.065(D).

(E) Fencing, Walls and Screening
(1) Fence and Wall Standards
The provisions of this section are required for all fences, walls, and screening materials in the BSD zoning districts. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the provisions of §153.064(G)(4)(h) shall be met with respect to fencing and walls for open spaces.
(a) Prohibited Materials
Chain link, vinyl and temporary plastic fences (such as snow fences) are prohibited except during construction as security for construction sites and materials. Fences that are electrically charged, constructed of barbed wire, and razor wire are prohibited. No fence, wall or retaining wall shall be constructed of materials not designed to be used for that purpose. High quality synthetic materials may be approved with the Minor Project or Site Plan Review by the required reviewing body with examples of successful, high quality installations.
(b) Fence and Wall Height and Opacity
1. No fence or wall located between the principal structure on a lot and the front property line shall exceed four feet in height, or be more the 50% opaque unless otherwise required by §153.065(E)(2) or §§153.059 through 153.065. These provisions apply to all street frontages on multiple frontage lots.
2. No fence or wall located between the principal structure on a lot and the side or rear property line shall exceed six feet in height.
3. The height provisions of §153.065(E)(1)(b)1-2 shall not apply to fences or walls required to comply with the screening standards of §153.065(D).
4. The provisions of §153.065(E)(1)(b)1-2 shall apply to all portions of retaining walls that extend above grade level, as measured from the elevated side of the retaining wall. Where a fence is located on top of a retaining wall, the combined height of the retaining wall and fence shall not exceed the maximum height permitted for a fence, as measured from the elevated side of the retaining wall.

(2) Street Wall Standards
(a) Intent
Street walls are intended to screen vehicular use areas or service areas and/or to define the pedestrian realm.
(b) Street Wall Design and Location
1. Street walls are intended to be placed within the front and/or corner side RBZ where an RBZ exists. If an RBZ is occupied by a building, the street wall shall be installed along the same plane as the nearest building façade.
2. Street walls shall be designed to coordinate with the architectural character of the building to which it is associated. Street walls shall be constructed of brick, stone, , wrought iron fencing combined with landscaping (wrought iron street wall type), or a hedgerow combined with landscaping and masonry posts (solid hedge and post type). The required reviewing body may require specific or alternative street wall designs, such as stacked stone walls, based on the design of the associated building and/or the development character of the lots surrounding the site.
3. Street walls in the BSD Historic Core shall be constructed as stacked stone walls, unless otherwise approved by the required reviewing body.
4. Street walls shall be a minimum of 22 inches where seating is intended; all other street walls shall be a minimum of 30 inches. No street wall shall exceed 36 inches in height.
5. Street walls are prohibited in required sight visibility triangles for site access points as defined in Appendix C and are prohibited in required sight visibility triangles for street intersections as determined by the City Engineer.
(c) Street Wall Landscaping
In all areas where landscaping is required, within four years after installation a minimum of 80% of the surface area of any landscape bed shall be covered by living materials, rather than bark, mulch, gravel, or other non-living materials,.
1. Masonry Street Wall
For masonry street walls, the property owner shall provide at least five shrubs per 25 feet of linear street frontage or fraction thereof on the street side of the masonry wall where the Landscape RBZ treatment is used. Required landscaping may be clustered for a more natural design.
2. Wrought Iron Street Wall
For a wrought iron street wall, the property owner shall provide at least five shrubs per 25 feet of linear street frontage or fraction thereof on the side of the fence interior to the lot.
3. Solid Hedge and Post Street Wall
For a solid hedge, the property owner shall install dense, closely spaced living plant material composed of trees, deciduous or evergreen shrubs, or a combination thereof, with a masonry post every 25 feet of linear street frontage or fraction thereof. The ground on the street side of the hedge shall be landscaped with ground cover exclusive of grass.
(d) Alternative Street Wall Design and Landscaping
In lieu of compliance with the specific requirements of §153.065(E)(2)(b)-(c), an owner may propose alternative approaches consistent with the intent of §153.065(E)(2) to accommodate unique site conditions, abutting or surrounding uses, the architectural character of adjacent buildings, or other conditions as deemed appropriate by the required reviewing body. Requests for alternative landscaping shall be reviewed by the required reviewing body with the Minor Project or Site Plan Review application and approved only if the proposed alternative is equal to or better than the intent of the provisions of §153.065(E)(2).

(3) Screening
(a) Prohibited Materials
Chain link, vinyl, EIFS, and unfinished or non-decorative CMU are prohibited screening materials. No screen shall be constructed of materials not designed to be used for that purpose. High quality synthetic materials may be approved with the Minor Project or Site Plan Review by the required reviewing body with examples of successful, high quality installations.
(b) Roof-Mounted Mechanical Equipment
All roof-mounted mechanical equipment (including but not limited to HVAC equipment, exhaust fans, cooling towers, and related guard rails or safety equipment) shall be fully screened from view at ground level on all sides of the structure and, to the extent practicable, from adjacent buildings of similar height in a BSD zoning district.
1. Screening shall be provided by:
A. A parapet wall or similar feature that is an integral part of the building’s architectural design (refer to §153.062(D) for roof requirements for building types); or
B. A screening structure located around the equipment that incorporates at least one of the primary materials and colors on a street-facing façade of the principal structure; or
C. A living wall or vertical garden which is covered by vegetation to provide a minimum of 50% year round opacity.
2. The parapet wall or screening structure shall be fully opaque year round and shall be at least as tall as the height of the mechanical equipment being screened.
3. The standards of §153.065(E)(3)(b) shall not apply if the only feasible location for screening would impede the functioning of solar, wind or geothermal energy equipment or systems.
(c) Ground-Mounted Mechanical Equipment
1. All ground-mounted mechanical equipment shall be incorporated within the footprint of a principal or accessory structure or shall be fully screened from view on all sides using one of the following options:
A. Landscape material which provides a minimum of 50% year round opacity; or
B. A living wall or vertical garden which is covered by vegetation to provide a minimum of 50% year round opacity; or
C. A decorative wall or fence that incorporates at least one of the primary materials and colors of the nearest wall of the principal structure and that provides 75% year round opacity.
2. The wall or screen shall be at least one foot taller than the height of the mechanical equipment being screened, up to a maximum of 12 feet.
3. The standards of §153.065(E)(3)(c) shall not apply if the only feasible location for screening would impede the functioning of solar, wind or geothermal energy equipment or systems.
4. Utility boxes shall be oriented with access doors facing away from the street right-of-way or adjacent property to the maximum extent practicable.
(d) Outdoor Waste and Storage Containers and Enclosures
1. All waste, refuse, and recycling containers and enclosures shall be incorporated within the footprint of a principal or accessory structure to the maximum extent practicable. If incorporation within the building footprint is not practicable, outdoor waste and storage containers and enclosures shall be fully screened from view on all sides by landscaping or by a decorative wall or fence finished and constructed to match the materials and design of the nearest wall of the principal structure and shall be fully opaque year round.
2. The wall or screen shall be at least one foot taller than the height of the waste or storage container or enclosure being screened, up to a maximum of 12 feet.
(e) Off-Street Loading Areas
Off-street loading docks or loading areas used for the storage and staging of materials shall be screened from view on all sides facing a street right-of-way or adjacent property, as practicable, by a decorative wall or fence between six and 12 feet in height, as necessary to sufficiently screen the area, constructed and finished to match the materials and design of the nearest wall of the principal structure. This requirement does not apply to the side of a loading area facing an alley/service street; the side by which vehicles enter and leave the loading area; maneuvering areas used for vehicles to approach the loading area; or alternative loading area locations permitted by §153.065(B)(7)(b).
(f) Access Doors
Screening structures may contain access doors to accommodate servicing of equipment and emptying or replacement of containers. The access doors shall be self-closing, and shall be constructed and finished to coordinate with the materials and design of the nearest wall of the principal structure. Access doors shall remain closed and all containers fully within the structure when not being used. Offset openings may be used in lieu of man doors provided the service structures remain fully screened from view.
(g) Vegetative Screening
If vegetative screening is used to meet the requirements of §153.065(E)(3), evergreen and deciduous species may be used provided the plant size and opacity meet the required height and opacity requirements within four years after planting. The minimum planting bed width shall be 42 inches.
(h) Alternative Screening
In lieu of compliance with the requirements of §153.065(E)(3), an alternative approach to accommodate unique site conditions or surrounding uses may be approved if the required reviewing body determines that the proposed alternative achieves the aesthetic, environmental, and screening results better than compliance with the standards of §153.065(E)(3).

(F) Exterior Lighting
(1) Intent
The standards of §153.065(F) are intended to allow adequate night time lighting to protect public safety while protecting residential uses from excessive night time light and glare, protecting motorists from glare along public rights-of-way, reducing consumption of electricity for lighting purposes, and prohibiting excessive light trespass beyond property lines.

(2) Applicability
The provisions of §153.149 shall apply to all development within the BSD zoning districts, in addition to the requirements of §153.065(F), except as noted in this section.

(3) Exemptions
The following types of lighting are exempt from the requirements of §153.065(F):
(a) Lighting for single family detached and single family attached dwellings.
(b) Pedestrian walkway ground lighting.
(c) Lighting for designated sports fields.
(d) Street lighting.

(4) Fixture Power and Efficiency
All light fixtures shall meet the standards in Table 153.065-H for power and efficiency.

(5) Shielding
(a) All exterior light sources and lamps that emit more than 900 lumens shall be concealed or shielded with an Illuminations Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) full cut-off style fixture with an angle not exceeding 90 degrees to minimize the potential for glare and unnecessary diffusion on adjacent property. No portion of the lamp, reflector, lens, or refracting system may extend beyond the housing or shield, with the exception of pedestrian lighting.
(b) All light sources shall be designed, located, and installed so that the light source is not directly visible from any adjacent property in a residential district.
(6) Lighting Uniformity
Lighting across a horizontal surface shall have an average range from one to three footcandles.
(7) Light Trespass
Light generated on site shall not add more than one footcandle to illumination levels at any point at grade level 10 feet beyond the property line.
(8) Lighting Plans
Lighting plans submitted as part of applicable Minor Project or Site Plan Reviews shall include existing lighting from streets and adjacent buildings developed under these standards, and proposed lighting generated from light poles and building lighting.
(9) Light Poles
The base of light poles in parking areas shall be either flush with grade or mounted on a concrete foundation projecting no more than 36 inches above grade. The base of light poles in non-parking areas shall be either flush with grade or mounted on a concrete foundation projecting no more than six inches above grade.
(10) Wall Lighting
(a) Decorative wall lighting may be used to provide uplighting, downlighting, or other types of lighting accents for buildings in all BSD zoning districts. Decorative lighting shall not exceed 900 lumens unless installed and shielded in accordance with §153.065(F)(5)(a).
(b) Ground or pole-mounted floodlights are not permitted for façade lighting.
(11) Canopy Lighting
(a) All canopy lighting shall use recessed luminaire fixtures and shall be designed and located so as to prevent glare onto adjacent properties.
(b) Highly reflective material shall not be installed on the underside of the canopy.
(12) Prohibited Lighting Types
Sodium vapor light fixtures are prohibited in all BSD zoning districts.

(G) Utility and Underground Screening
(1) In all BSD zoning districts, all utility lines including but not limited to water supply, sanitary sewer service, electricity, telephone and gas, and their connections or feeder lines shall be placed underground.

(2) All utility connections shall be kept to the rear or the side of the building, out of view or screened. Applicants shall coordinate with utility providers to site transformers and other similar utility structures to the rear or sides of buildings, or otherwise out of view or screened.

(3) Existing above-ground utility lines shall be required to be buried with the provision of new streets, or as otherwise required by the City Engineer.

(H) Signs
(1) Intent and General Purpose
(a) General
The intent of §153.065(H) is to enhance the physical appearance of the BSD zoning districts and the City of Dublin as a whole by encouraging high quality, effective outdoor graphics for the purposes of navigation, information and identification; and to protect the health, safety, and general welfare of the community. More specifically, it is the intent of this section to:
1. Provide sign standards that allow fair competition while ensuring that signs used by individual businesses will contribute to the urban vitality, interest, and uniqueness of the Bridge Street District.
2. Provide aesthetic standards that ensure adherence to the high level of design and construction quality expected by the community.
3.Provide the public with a safe and effective means of locating businesses, services and points of interest by multiple modes of transportation.
4. Provide standards for signs that are appropriately scaled to the pedestrian realm and designed to enliven the pedestrian experience.
5. Regulate signs in accordance with applicable federal and state law.
(b) BSD Residential, Office Residential, Office, Commercial, and Public Districts
The purpose of signs in these districts is to provide identification with high visual quality in a manner that respects the character and scale of residential areas while providing clear visibility for larger office, commercial and residential developments. Signs should provide high quality awareness through graphics that effectively assist in navigation, information and identification for both pedestrians and vehicles.
(c) BSD Indian Run Neighborhood, Sawmill Center Neighborhood, Scioto River Neighborhood and Vertical Mixed Use Districts
The purpose of signs in these districts is to accommodate a wide variety of building types and uses to create vibrant, mixed-use shopping and entertainment districts. Sign and graphic standards shall contribute to the vibrancy of the districts and the creation of high quality environments with effective graphics intended for navigation, information, and identification primarily for pedestrians and secondarily for vehicles.
(d) BSD Historic Core and Historic Transition Neighborhood Districts
The purpose of signs in these districts is to provide for pedestrian-oriented signs that match the general character and scale of Dublin’s original village commercial center. Signs should provide business identification in a manner consistent with the historic appearance and character of the districts, while encouraging a more interesting streetscape.

(2) General Provisions
(a) All applicable requirements of §§153.150 through 153.163 shall apply to the BSD zoning districts except as modified by §153.065(H). In the event of a conflict with the provisions of §§ 153.150 through 153.163, the provisions of §153.065(H) shall govern.
(b) Where noted for the purposes of permitted signs, street frontages shall apply only to public streets.
(c) Nonconforming signs shall be subject to the provisions of §153.161(J).
(d) Approval Authority
1. All permanent signs shall require a permanent sign permit unless otherwise exempted for a specific sign type.
2. Required reviewing bodies shall not address the content of the sign message.
3. Off-premise signs are only permitted with the approval of a master sign plan.
4. All signs located within or projecting over the public right-of-way shall be approved by the City Engineer prior to placement.
5. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Code, the design and placement of City-sponsored banners for special events or public announcements affixed to public facilities in the right-of-way within the Bridge Street District shall be approved by the City Manager prior to placement.
(e) Master Sign Plans
1. The purpose of a master sign plan is to allow a greater degree of flexibility and creativity in sign design and display. Further, master sign plans are intended to be used for multiple signs for either a single building or a group of related buildings to ensure that the requested signs work in a coordinated fashion to meet the general intent of signs in the District. It is not intended to simply permit larger or more visible signs or additional signs than may be permitted, without any consideration for unique sign design and display. Master sign plans shall maintain the purpose and intent of the sign and graphic standards for the applicable BSD zoning district. Master sign plans may be submitted for the purposes described below.
a. Any applicant may request approval for a master sign plan for signs that depart from the requirements of §153.065(H). The required reviewing body shall be permitted to approve alternative requirements for sign design, number, type, size, height, location, and lighting.
b. A master sign plan may be submitted for a single building to ensure that sign locations and designs are properly coordinated with the building. Once the master sign plan is approved, no subsequent approvals are required provided the signs are consistent with the approved master sign plan.
c. A master sign plan may be submitted for multiple buildings and sites. A master sign plan is required for shopping corridors. Once the master sign plan is approved, no subsequent approvals are required provided the signs are consistent with the approved master sign plan.
2.The Planning and Zoning Commission shall review all master sign plans, except for those in the BSD Historic Core District and areas of the BSD Public and Historic Transition Neighborhood Districts that fall within the Architectural Review District boundaries, as provided in §153.065(H)(2)(e)(6).
3. Applications for Basic Plan Review as required in §153.066(D) may include a description of the general design intent for proposed signs, demonstrating coordination with proposed building architecture and compatibility with the surrounding development context. Information provided at the Basic Plan Review should demonstrate that signs will meet all requirements of §153.065(H), or that the applicant intends to request master sign plan as provided in §153.065(H)(2)(e). A master sign plan may be reviewed concurrently with a Basic Plan Review.
4. A master sign plan shall include, at a minimum: the proposed locations, types, number, heights and sizes of signs, indicated on scaled plans and/or building elevation drawings; proposed materials to be used for sign structures and sign faces; fabrication details; and proposed types of illumination.
5. Where applicable, all signs located within a development shall meet the requirements established in an approved master sign plan. Where an approved master sign plan does not contain specific sign elements (such as height, colors, placement, etc.), then the provisions of §153.065(H) shall apply.
6. The Architectural Review Board may approve master sign plans that depart from the requirements of §153.065(H), provided the purpose and intent of the sign and graphic standards for the BSD Historic Core and Historic Transition Neighborhood districts and the historic character of Historic Dublin are maintained. The Board shall determine the appropriateness of signs and their placement given the architecture of buildings within these districts.

(3) BSD Zoning Districts with Special Sign Provisions
(a) BSD Historic Residential District
The requirements of §§153.150 through 153.163 shall apply in the BSD Historic Residential District without modification.
(b) BSD Indian Run Neighborhood, Sawmill Center Neighborhood, Scioto River Neighborhood and Vertical Mixed Use Districts
1. Signs in these districts shall be subject to the requirements of §153.065(H)(6) through (7) as applicable, unless a master sign plan is approved by the Planning and Zoning Commission (refer to §153.065(H)(2)(b)6)).
2. A master sign plan is required for a planned shopping corridor regardless of whether the signs meet the requirements of the district in which they are located. The master sign plan may be submitted at any time, but no sign permits shall be issued until the master sign plan is approved.
(c) BSD Historic Core and Historic Transition Neighborhood District
1. Signs in these districts shall be subject to the requirements of §153.065(H)(6) through (7) as applicable, unless a master sign plan is approved by the Architectural Review Board (refer to §153.065(H)(2)(b)6).
2. All new ground and building-mounted signs in those parts of the BSD Historic Core and Historic Transition districts that fall within the Architectural Review District boundaries shall be subject to review and approval by the Architectural Review Board.

(4) Sign Design and Lighting
All signs shall be designed with the maximum of creativity and the highest quality of materials and fabrication. It is strongly recommended that all signs be designed by a professional sign designer and be installed by a qualified sign builder or contractor.
(a) All signs shall be designed to fully integrate with the building architecture and overall site design, and to enhance the pedestrian experience in the Bridge Street District. Signs attached to principal structures shall be coordinated and fit appropriately with the architecture of the building in accordance with §153.062(M). Signs placed on windows, awnings and canopies shall meet the requirements of §153.062(H).
(b)The illumination of signs is strongly encouraged to help add a sense of liveliness and activity to the area. Unless otherwise noted, signs may be externally illuminated, provided that all exterior lighting meets the requirements of §153.065(F). Internally illuminated pan channel or cabinet signs are permitted, provided that the sign is creatively designed with high quality materials and fabrication, as determined by the required reviewing body. Awning signs and sandwich board signs may not be internally illuminated. Illuminated signs shall be constructed so that raceways, conduit and piping for electrical sources are not exposed to view.
(c) The provisions of §153.158(C)(3) (limitations on sign shape), shall not apply in the BSD zoning districts.
(d) Sign Colors and Secondary Images
1. Signs shall be limited to three colors, including black and white. The background color shall be considered one of the three permissible colors, unless channel letters are used, in which case the background is not considered one of the three colors.
2. Logos, registered corporate trademarks and/or symbols, or other secondary images used to convey information about the business or use of the building or lot must be compatible with the size, design, and scale of the sign. Colorful logos and signs are encouraged to help add character and interest to the building and streetscape.
3. Logos, Registered Corporate Trademarks and/or Symbols
A. For signs incorporating a registered corporate trademark or symbol, colors used in the registered corporate trademark or symbol shall not be limited in number, but shall be considered as one of three permissible colors. Sign copy or background shall use one of the colors used in the registered corporate trademark or symbol.
B. Signs with a registered corporate trademark or symbol that is less than 20% of the sign area shall be limited to three colors as provided in §§ 153.065 (H)(4)(d)1 and 153.065(H)(4)(d)3A. The cumulative area of registered corporate trademarks or symbols and other secondary images shall not exceed 20% of the sign area.
C. Where a registered corporate trademark or symbol exceeds 20% of the sign area, signs shall have a maximum of five colors including symbols, sign copy, and background color. The background color is included in the maximum permissible colors, unless channel letters are used and affixed directly to a building or other support structure, in which case the background is not considered one of the permissible colors. No additional secondary images are permitted.
4. Other Secondary Images
Secondary images used on signs that do not include a registered corporate trademark or symbol shall not exceed 20% of the sign area. Signs are limited to a total of three colors as provided in §153.065 (H)(4)(d)1.
5. All signs shall adhere to the size limitations of §153.158(C)(2).
(e) Sign Materials
1. All permitted sign types shall be designed with the highest quality of materials and fabrication. High quality, durable and low maintenance materials are required. The type of material should be compatible with the associated building’s façade and other materials in the surrounding area. Traditional materials, such as wood, are preferred over plastic signs.
2. Signs shall be fabricated, constructed and installed to conceal fasteners and/or other methods of attachment that not integral to the sign design.
3. Rusted and/or deteriorating materials shall be replaced.
4. The following primary materials are required for sign faces. Other materials may be used for sign construction provided they are only used in supplementary parts of the sign, such as framing materials or other similar uses. The required reviewing body may approve other materials if it determines that the materials provide appropriate high quality, durability, and design features.
a.Metal faces: .125-inch aluminum or 4mm composites for 3 foot and greater spans to avoid “oil canning” (rippling) of faces. Thinner material may be used for shorter spans.
b. Moldable Synthetic Materials: Solar Grade (SG) acrylics and polycarbonates (or equivalent) to avoid fading, typically no less than .125-inch.
c. Metal returns: Etched (sanded) primed and painted aluminum.
d. Paints, when used, shall be acrylic polyurethane paint systems with zinc chromate primers, or equivalent.
e. Wood materials: HDU, cedar, redwood and treated lumber. Wooden signs shall be properly sealed to prevent moisture from soaking into the wood.
f. Window sign materials shall be of pressure sensitive vinyl and similar. For exterior use “High Performance” materials that have higher tack values and avoid premature fading shall be used. Printed PSV/decals shall have an exterior laminate added to ensure exterior durability.

(5) Sign Types Permitted in BSD Zoning Districts
(a) All sign types permitted in the BSD zoning districts are listed in Table 153.065-G. Refer to §153.065(H)(6) for number of signs permitted, and §153.065(H)(7) for requirements for specific sign types.
(b) Different sign types may be used on the same frontage.
(c) Where required, setbacks shall be measured from the public street right-of-way, lot line, or minimum Required Building Zone, as applicable.

(6) Number of Permitted Signs
Refer to §153.065(H)(6)(d) for the number of signs permitted in the BSD Historic Core and Historic Transition Neighborhood Districts and to §§153.150 through 153.163 for the BSD Historic Residential district. For all other BSD zoning districts, the number of permitted signs shall be in accordance with subsections §153.065(H)(6)(a)-(c). Refer to Table 153.065-G, Sign Types Permitted in BSD zoning districts, for the list of permitted signs and the intent of each sign type.
(a) Ground Signs
In addition to any other signs permitted by §153.065(H)(6)(b)-(c), one ground sign is permitted per building or parcel for each street frontage, not to exceed a maximum of two ground signs. Refer to §153.065(H)(7)(a), Ground Signs, for specific requirements for size, location, and height.
(b) Single Tenant Buildings and Multiple Tenant Buildings without Storefronts
Refer to §153.065(H)(7)(b), Building-Mounted Signs, for specific requirements for sign types, sizes, locations, and heights.
1. Multiple tenant buildings without storefronts and single tenant buildings are permitted a maximum of one building-mounted sign per street frontage.
2. A directory sign may be used at each public entrance to identify tenants in multiple tenant buildings without storefronts. For buildings with fewer than three stories an additional projecting sign not exceeding eight square feet may be located adjacent to a common public entrance providing access to the upper floor tenant spaces.
(c) Multiple Tenant Buildings with Storefronts
Refer to §153.065(H)(7)(b), Building-Mounted Signs, for specific requirements for building-mounted sign types, sizes, locations, and heights.
1. Buildings with ground floor storefronts are permitted a maximum of two building-mounted signs for each ground floor tenant with a storefront. The two permitted building-mounted signs shall not be of the same sign type.
2. One additional building-mounted sign is permitted for each tenant with a storefront with a public entrance facing an off-street parking area or parking structure in the same block, provided that the entrance is located on the side or rear façade of the building.
3. A directory sign may be used to identify tenant spaces located above the ground floor. For buildings with fewer than three stories, an additional projecting sign is permitted provided it is located adjacent to a common public entrance providing access to the upper floor tenant spaces.
4. A single, one-square-foot window sign indicating the name of the business and/or a logo, shall be permitted only on a public entrance to the tenant space and shall not require a permanent sign permit, provided not more than one low chroma color is used, such as black, white, or gray.
(d) Number of Permitted Signs in the BSD Historic Core and Historic Transition Neighborhood Districts
Refer to §153.065(H)(7)(a)-(b) for specific requirements for ground and building-mounted sign types, sizes, locations, and heights.
1. Single Tenant Buildings
A combination of two different sign types, including ground signs and building-mounted signs, are permitted for each street-facing building façade or frontage. For lots with more than one street frontage, one additional ground or building-mounted sign is permitted along the second lot frontage, not to exceed a total of three signs.
2. Multiple Tenant Buildings
A combination of two different sign types, including ground signs and building-mounted signs, are permitted for each ground floor tenant with a storefront. The permitted signs may be on separate elevations where storefronts are on multiple elevations.
3. An additional building-mounted sign is permitted for each tenant with a storefront where the tenant also has a dedicated public entrance facing an off-street parking area or parking structure in the same block, provided that the secondary public entrance is located on the side or rear façade of the building.
4. Tenant spaces located above the ground floor may be identified by a directory sign or by a window sign or projecting sign located adjacent to a common public entrance providing access to the upper floor tenant spaces.
5. A single, one-square-foot window sign indicating the name of the business and/or a logo, shall be permitted on each public entrance to a tenant space and shall not require a permanent sign permit, provided not more than one low chroma color is used.
(7) Specific Sign Type Requirements
(a) Ground Signs
1. Ground sign height is measured from the established grade of the base of the sign to the top of the sign or its frame/support. The height may not be artificially increased.
2. All ground signs shall comply with the provisions of Table 153.065-H, Ground Sign Requirements.
(b) Building-Mounted Signs
1. Building-Mounted Sign Types and Measurements
A. Building-mounted signs include wall signs, awning signs, projecting signs, and window signs.
B. Wall sign height is measured directly beneath the sign from the established grade at the base of the structure to which the sign is attached to the top of the sign.
C. Wall sign areas for buildings with storefronts shall be determined by taking the length of the storefront applicable to each tenant and computing sign requirements for that portion of the total wall.
D. Projecting sign height is measured directly beneath the sign from the established grade at the base of the structure to which the sign is attached to the top of the sign, but shall not include brackets or equipment which are necessary to attach the sign to the structure. Necessary brackets or equipment shall not be counted as part of the sign area.
2. All building-mounted signs shall comply with the provisions of Table 153.065-I, Building-Mounted Sign Requirements, except that:
A. Any building-mounted sign associated with a secondary public entrance as described in §153.065(H)(6)(c)-(d) above shall not exceed six square feet in size and shall be located within six feet of the secondary public entrance, as measured horizontally along the building façade.
B. Any projecting sign associated with a common public entrance providing access to upper floor tenant spaces as described in §153.065(H)(6)(c) -(d) above shall not exceed eight square feet and be located within six feet of the common public entrance.
(c) Building Identification Signs
1. In addition to any other permitted signs, one building identification sign is permitted per street frontage for buildings with three or more stories. Building identification signs are not permitted in the BSD Historic Residential, Historic Core, or portions of the Historic Transition Neighborhood districts that fall within the Architectural Review District boundaries unless approved by the Architectural Review Board through a master sign plan (refer to §153.065(H)(2)(b)6).
2. Building identification signs shall comply with Table 153.065-J, Building Identification Sign Requirements. If street address numbers are used in lieu of the name of a major tenant, the street address numbers shall require a permanent sign permit and shall comply with Table 153.065-J, Building Identification Sign Requirements.
(d) Other Permitted Signs
In addition to the signs permitted by Tables 153.065-H through 153.065-I, directory, display, and sandwich board signs shall be permitted in accordance with Table 153.065-K, Requirements for Other Permitted Signs. Signs permitted by §153.157, with the exception of §153.157(K) shall also be permitted in all BSD zoning districts.

(I) Walkability Standards
(1) Intent and Purpose
(a) These regulations are intended to provide specific requirements that promote the walkable urbanism principles of §153.057(D).
(b) The intent of the walkability standards is to enhance connectivity, improve pedestrian safety, and promote comfortable walking and sitting environments.
(c) The walkability standards promote healthier lifestyles by encouraging walking and bicycling over the use of an automobile for most daily activities. It also provides the means by which residents and visitors can be more engaged with their neighbors, coworkers and fellow visitors.
(d) The walkability standards promote a safer and more comfortable atmosphere for pedestrians and bicyclists.
(e) The walkability standards promote recognition that some streets are clearly designed to accommodate both bicycles and automobiles within traffic lanes.
(f) Pedestrian facilities are intended to be designed and installed to provide the maximum degree of connectivity between destinations within the Bridge Street District, including convenient access between places of work, shopping, dining, recreation, public transit stops, and home.
(g) Pedestrian facilities include sidewalks and required building zone (RBZ) treatments, street crossings, mid-block pedestrianways, mid-building pedestrianways, building entrances, seating areas within pocket parks and plazas and/or the furnishing zone within the right-of-way, and greenways.

(2) Walkability Objective: Connectivity
(a) Mid-Block Pedestrianways
Mid-block pedestrianways are required on all blocks exceeding 400 feet in length, unless otherwise required or exempted by §153.063, Neighborhood Standards.
1. When combined with mid-block street crossings, pedestrianways shall align as nearly as practicable to encourage continuous pedestrian pathways.
2. Mid-block pedestrianways shall be publicly accessible at all times.
3. Mid-block pedestrianways shall be located within the middle third of a block with access from the sides of a block exceeding 400 feet. Refer to Figure 153.060-A, Typical Block Elements, for an illustration of the middle third of a block.
4. Design
A. The ends of the mid-block pedestrianway shall terminate at either a public right-of-way, an open space meeting the requirements of §153.064, or another publicly accessible space as approved by the required reviewing body.
B. Mid-block pedestrianways shall be a minimum of 14 feet in width, with a minimum five foot sidewalk, and designed as a continuation of the streetscape, including materials and furnishings.
C. The mid-block pedestrianway shall be lighted using footlights, bollard lights, building lights, and/or adjacent street lights to provide for safety and visibility.
D. The mid-block pedestrianway shall be landscaped except as required by §153.065(I)(2)(a)5.
5. A mid-building pedestrianway, as described in §153.065(I)(2)(b), may serve as a mid-block pedestrianway provided it meets the applicable design and location requirements of mid-block pedestrianways described in this section in addition to other applicable requirements for mid-building pedestrianways; however, landscaping shall not be required.
6. Alternatively, the pedestrianway requirement may be fulfilled by a permitted alley when located in the middle third of a block and when a minimum five foot sidewalk is provided. Design requirements shall be based on the applicable street type specifications, as described in §153.061, Street Types.
7. The required reviewing body may require additional mid-block pedestrianways when necessary to create a cohesive, walkable block configuration and ensure consistency with the Principles of Walkable Urbanism provided in §153.057(D).
(b) Mid-Building Pedestrianways
1. Mid-building pedestrianways are intended to provide safe, well-lit, and attractive paths providing convenient pedestrian access to and from areas such as parking lots, parking structures, and/or service streets from the opposite side of a building.
2. Access through buildings to parking lots behind buildings with a pedestrian walkway through the first floor of the building is required based on building types. The walkway shall be a minimum of eight feet wide. One door, window, or opening shall be provided along the pedestrianway for every full 30 feet of length. A minimum of 20% ground floor transparency, measured along the length of the walkway, shall be provided on building façades facing pedestrianways in shopping corridors.
3. A mid-building pedestrianway may serve as a mid-block pedestrianway as described in §153.065(I)(2)(a).

(3) Walkability Objective: Safety
(a) Crosswalks
1. Crosswalks shall be required at the stop-controlled legs of unsignalized intersections and all legs of signalized intersections or as otherwise required by the City Engineer. Crosswalks may be permitted at mid-block locations for areas where heavy pedestrian traffic is anticipated, such as shopping corridors, at the determination of the City Engineer. The locations of mid-block crosswalks should be aligned with the locations of mid-block pedestrianways where practicable.
2. To encourage pedestrian activity, typical crosswalks shall not exceed 38 feet in length without a landscape median, curb extension and/or other pedestrian refuge to mitigate the effects of vehicular traffic on crossing and increase pedestrian safety and comfort. These design measures shall be implemented wherever practicable, as determined by the City Engineer.
(b) Pedestrian Circulation Plans
Each surface parking area that contains 50 or more parking spaces, or contains any parking spaces located more than 350 feet from the front façade of the principal structure, shall contain at least one pedestrian walkway or sidewalk allowing pedestrians to pass from the row of parking farthest from the primary building façade to the primary building entrance. The required walkway must be at least five feet wide, shall not be located within a driving aisle, and, where possible, shall be located in a landscaped island running perpendicular to the primary building façade.

(4) Walkability Objective: Comfort and Convenience
(a) Required Building Zone (RBZ) Treatment
All areas between the front or corner side property lines and the back of the RBZ or setback not occupied by a building shall be treated with either a landscape, patio, or streetscape treatment as required by §153.062(O).
1. Where necessary to provide adequate sidewalk width in areas expected to have high volumes of pedestrian activity, such as in a shopping corridor, a streetscape RBZ treatment may be required by the required reviewing body.
2. If a building is proposed to be constructed with a zero lot line setback, with the building façade adjacent to the public sidewalk at the right-of-way, and the required reviewing body determines that additional sidewalk width is necessary to ensure consistency with the Principles of Walkable Urbanism, the required reviewing body may require the building to be set back with a streetscape RBZ treatment, provided the building remains within the RBZ as required by building type. A public access easement shall be required.
3. The streetscape RBZ treatment shall be required for all designated shopping corridors, and in all cases, a minimum 8 feet of clear sidewalk width shall be provided through the combination of public right-of-way and required building zone area with public access easements.
4. Where parking is permitted to the side or rear of a principal structure pursuant to the building type requirements of §153.062(O), surface parking areas and associated driveways may encroach into the front and/or corner side RBZ provided a street wall is installed in accordance with §153.065(E)(2) to screen the parking area. The area on the street-facing side of the street wall shall be treated with landscape, patio, or streetscape RBZ treatment as permitted by the building type.
(b) Building Entrances
1. A principal building entrance shall be on any principal frontage street or the front façade of the building. Principal entrance doors shall be fully functioning during regular business hours and shall connect to the public sidewalk along the street.
2. The number and spacing of entrances on a building façade with street frontage and on a rear façade facing a parking lot shall be provided as required by building type.
(c) Seating Areas
1. Outdoor seating areas are required for all pocket plazas, and may be required by the required reviewing body for other public and private outdoor spaces, including all other open space types provided in §153.064(F).
2. Where required, there shall be a minimum of one linear foot of seating for every two linear feet of public or private street frontage. The required reviewing body may modify this requirement where conditions warrant greater or lesser seating.
3. Seating requirements may be met through the use of moveable seating, fixed individual seats, fixed benches, seat walls, planter ledges, seating steps, and other creatively designed seating areas that invite resting and gathering. A combination of seating is encouraged.
4. To ensure that adequate seating invites use by the public, a portion of the required seating must be located within at least 10 feet of a public sidewalk where provided.
5. At least one waste receptacle for each outdoor seating area is required. Additional receptacles may be required for areas containing food service, such as open air cafés.

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